Bonsai Tree Pests
Like all plants, bonsai can fall prey to a number of parasites, which feed off the sap, at the expense of the tree. These pests benefit from the regular watering and health care given to bonsai. The following are some common pests, althoughcan be suscept-ible to attacks by white fly as well.
As most gardeners will know, these pests are hard to eliminate. They are small, green, yellow or brown insects which live in colonies on the leaves and stems. Extremely prolific, they quickly multiply to form clusters that cover the whole plant. They weaken the tree by sucking its sap and also encourage fungal and viral diseases, which move in quickly when the plant is weakened. These also attract ants which establish their nests in the root ball.
One of the most persistent of aphids is the woolly aphid. This has a white fur coat which protects the aphid from contact with insecticide. Although systemic insecticide should control this pest, a better method is to paint it with methylated spirit. If your tree looks as though it is developing tiny pieces of cotton wool, then it has woolly aphid.
There are many different kinds of caterpillars, all with a voracious appetite for foliage, which attack plant leaves, to the point of total destruction.
Some of them develop in cocoons on the undersides of leaves before appearing in the daylight. They twist themselves into silky webs, hence their name, tortrix caterpillars. Sometimes they develop in the leaf and flower buds.
Caterpillars are not always easy to eliminate, as they are sometimes resistant to insecticides. Remove them by hand where you see them and destroy them. An insecticide powder, which stays on the leaves longer, can give good results, as the caterpillars absorb it as they eat their way through the leaves. It may be possible to catch some species in a saucer of glue placed at the base of the tree. This will prevent moths from climbing the tree at night in autumn and laying their eggs on the leaves.
Minuscule insects which cling firmly to branches and trunk, protected by a scaly outer shell. These insects are destructive pests. The female penetrates the plant’s skin and sucks out sap. Like aphids, they encourage the spread of fungal and viral diseases. Control with an oily insecticide in winter, then scrape away any dead bark. Eggs will continue to develop under the shells of dead insects. It is vital to burn all debris from the scraping.
Another method is to dip a small paintbrush or cotton bud in methylated spirit. This can then be painted on and around the scale.
Tiny, red spider mites are visible to the naked eye because of their bright colour. The tetranychus group are particularly voracious, the adult mite piercing the backs of the leaves to suck out the sap. They most frequently attack conifers, the needles of which then turn yellow and drop.
Mites are quite resistant to insecticides (which are formulated to kill insects, but not necessarily mites). Special products are hard to find. The most effective treatment is to prune away and burn infested branches.
Some insects may lay eggs in the bonsai compost, that is, in the root ball. The larvae which hatch are especially fond of young roots, which they devour, depriving the plant of nourishment. So keep a watchful eye open during repotting, when you can destroy larvae with your fingers. You could also use a suitable insecticide like HCH.
Red spider mites
For long mistakenly thought of as in-sects, red spiders are actually mites, about which relatively little is known, due to their microscopic size. Though
Ants are formidable pests in several ways. Due to their fondness for aphids, on whose excretions they feed, they can almost be said to ‘farm’ them, since they convey them from one plant to another plant and protect them from predators such as ladybirds. In order to be near their food, ants also tend to congregate in nests in thearound the roots, causing havoc in the root system and cutting through roots as they carve out tunnels. The sole remedy is to set a trap for them on the surface of the root ball. If an ant’s nest is set up in the root ball, the only solution is to lift the plant from its tray. Brush off the soil and eliminate as many larvae as possible. When disturbed, ants are easily dislodged.